Reference Models, Architectural Styles & Standards

Reference models and architectural styles should be the foundation for any architectural work. Thus, this page contains a lot of resources structured according to topics which might overlap.




  • Jacobson, D.; Brail, G.: APIs – A Strategy Guide. O’Reilly and Associates, 2011.
  • ProgrammableWeb
  • API Evangelist by Kim Lane
  • to be continued


Smart, Connected Devices (aka Internet of Things)

The following blog post provides and overview of the reference architectures for Smart, Connected Devices (aka Internet of Things): Reference Models and Architectures related to Smart, Connected Devices and Internet of Things.

Non-proprietary reference models

Internet of Things Architecture (IoT-A)
Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA)
Reference Architectural Model for Industrie 4.0 (RAMI 4.0)
Web of Things Architecture (WoT)
OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA)
ISO/IEC Working Group 3 of the Joint Technical Committee 1

Proprietary reference models